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Roscosmos published photographs and declassified documents on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Venera-7 mission
fifteen.12.2021 [18:22],
Konstantin Khodakovsky

Exactly half a century ago, on December 15, 1970, the Russian automatic station “Venera-7” made the first ever soft landing on the surface of the planet Venus, neighboring to the Earth, and sent radio signals back from it. On the occasion of the anniversary, Roskosmos has published a number of declassified materials dedicated to that mission.

Venera-7 was an important result of a decade of work begun at OKB-1 by chief designer Sergei Korolev and continued at the Machine-Building Plant named after S. BUT. Lavochkin under the leadership of Georgy Babakin. Among the published documents are the conclusion of the expert commission, the terms of reference, draft TASS reports on the launch of the stations, the results of the implementation of the plan for research and development work, as well as orders of the Minister of General Engineering, minutes of meetings and conferences, letters to the scientific secretary, the conclusion of the working group of the Interdepartmental Scientific and Technical Council for Space Research. All this can be found on a special page.

Scheme of the interplanetary automatic station “Venera-7”. Photo from the RGANTD archive

Venera-7 was launched on August 12, 1970, and on December 15 of the same year, the mission descent vehicle entered the planet’s atmosphere, during aerodynamic deceleration it reduced its speed from 11.5 km / s to 200 m / s, reaching the design overloads of 350 units – further movement was carried out on a parachute made of heat-resistant fabric. Ground communication equipment received radio signals from the descent vehicle for 53 minutes – from the moment of the end of the plasma section of the descent, including when it sank to the surface. When entering the atmosphere, the telemetry switch failed, and the station transmitted information only about the ambient temperature.

Center for deep space communications, flight control post “Venera-7”. Photo from the RGANTD archive

From the time of descent of the descent vehicle in the atmosphere, the length of the descent trajectory, the speed and the nature of the change in the data transmitted from it, the scientists managed to compile a profile of the correspondence between the ambient temperature and the height to the planet. Previous ideas about the gas shell of Venus turned out to be erroneous. The flight of the probe helped to establish the state of the planet’s atmosphere: on the surface at the landing site of the descent vehicle, a temperature of 475 ± 20 ° С was recorded, and the pressure was 90 ± 15 atmospheres.

Interplanetary automatic station “Venera-7” on a support in the assembly and testing building. Photo from the RGANTD archive

By the Doppler shift of the radio signal traveling from the descent vehicle to the Earth, it was possible to assess the quality of the surface on which the station landed. The shallow depth to which the descent vehicle buried itself in the soil after falling as a result of the premature shooting of parachute lines indicated that the Venusian soil resembles something between sand and volcanic tuff. The mission of “Venus-7” became an important achievement of Russian scientists and became a new milestone in the study of the planet closest to the earth.

The descent vehicle of the interplanetary automatic station “Venera-7”. A pennant with a bas-relief B is visible.AND. Lenin. Photo from the RGANTD archive

By the way, the first attempt to reach Venus was made on February 12, 1961: the Venera-1 interplanetary station, developed at OKB-1 (now the S. P. Korolev, a division of Roscosmos) under the leadership of Sergei Korolev. But having moved away from the Earth by 23 million km in two weeks, the spacecraft stopped responding – the last signals from it were received on February 27, and at that time it was a record for long-distance space communications.

Specialists of the Center for Deep Space Communication during flight control of the Venera-7 station. Photo from the RGANTD archive

Subsequent missions were sent to the Morning Star (as Venus is sometimes called due to the fact that it appears in the sky shortly before sunrise) in November 1965 with a difference of four days: “Venus-2” and “Venus-3” were equipped with equipment for transmission of images and study of the main parameters of the atmosphere and surface of the planet. On February 27, 1966, Venera-2 passed from the target at a distance of 24 thousand. km, and “Venera-3” even hit it, delivering a pennant with the emblem of the USSR on March 1 of the same year to the surface of the second planet of the solar system. The missions of the flight were not completed in full due to the failure of a number of systems, but during the mission, valuable information about interplanetary space was transferred to Earth.

Interplanetary automatic station “Venera-7”. Photo from the RGANTD archive

The next stage was “Venera-4”, launched on June 12, 1967. This station was made according to old drawings, but already at a new enterprise: in 1965, OKB-1 transferred the theme of lunar and interplanetary probes to the Machine-Building Plant named after S. BUT. Lavochkin, where the thermal control system of the orbital vehicle was qualitatively changed and the descent vehicle was completely redesigned. On October 18, 1967, the descent vehicle of the interplanetary station entered the upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere and made an hour and a half parachute descent, transmitting information about the density, chemical composition, pressure and temperature of gases. As it plunged, the gas ocean of Venus became hotter and denser. At 270 ° C and 18 atmospheres, the shell burst, and the descent vehicle collapsed. The probe’s messages showed that the atmosphere of Venus is much denser and hotter than previously imagined by scientists.

The descent vehicles of the Venera-5 and Venera-6 missions, launched to the planet in January 1969, were strengthened, but they also could not overcome the atmosphere, limiting themselves to transmitting data on its chemical composition and temperature over a wide range of altitudes. The analysis showed that to land on Venus, the device must have the strength of a bathyscaphe and withstand pressure six times higher than that laid down by the previous design.

These requirements were taken into account when creating “Venera-7”: the body was made of titanium alloy and is designed for pressures up to 180 atmospheres and overloads of more than 300 units. Measuring equipment, power supplies and a thermal control system were located inside. Improved thermal insulation allowed the descent vehicle to function actively on the planet’s surface – at maximum pressure and external temperatures up to 530 ° C – for at least 30 minutes.